紐時賞析/大撒幣還是拚經濟?多州補助好萊塢拍片 學者質疑效益

紐時賞析/大撒幣還是拚經濟?多州補助好萊塢拍片 學者質疑效益

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美國密西根州迫切希望進行一場好萊塢式大改造。爲了五億美元,片廠非常樂意協助。圖/Ingimage

States Have Spent $25 Billion to Woo Hollywood. Is It Worth It?

美國多州大撒幣吸引好萊塢 是否值得

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Michigan desperately wanted a Hollywood makeover. And for $500 million, studios were more than happy to help.

美國密西根州迫切希望進行一場好萊塢式大改造。爲了五億美元,片廠非常樂意協助。

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When the state started writing checks in 2008 from one of the nation’s most generous film incentive programs, productions flocked there, making box-office hits such as Clint Eastwood’s “Gran Torino,” Sam Raimi’s “Oz the Great and Powerful” and Zack Snyder’s “Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice.”

2008年,密西根州這項堪稱全美最慷慨之一的電影獎勵計劃開出支票時,製片計劃涌入該州,拍攝票房大作包括克林伊斯威特「經典老爺車」、山姆雷米「奧茲大帝」和查克史奈德「蝙蝠俠大戰超人:正義曙光」。

Then Michigan did the math.

然後密西根州計算得失。

After a state economist determined that “the film incentives represent lost revenue” and that their economic benefits were “negligible,” Michigan, which cut funding for police and schools while facing a severe budget deficit, eventually decided to end its incentives.

該州一名經濟學家確認「電影獎勵計劃等於收入損失」,且其經濟效益「微不足道」,面臨嚴重預算赤字而削減警政和學校經費的密西根州,最終決定終止這個獎勵計劃。

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As the program gradually unwound, “The Avengers” moved to Cleveland and “Iron Man 3” went to Wilmington, North Carolina. Even “Detroit” was filmed in Boston.

隨着計劃漸漸廢弛,「復仇者聯盟」移往俄亥俄州克里夫蘭拍攝、「鋼鐵人3」移往北卡州威明頓,連「底特律」都是在波士頓拍攝。

Now, almost a decade after the state stopped paying Hollywood, lawmakers think they can no longer afford not to.

現在,在密西根州停止補助好萊塢近10年後,議員們認爲他們再也禁不起不這麼做的後果。

“We’re not on an even playing field,” said Dayna Polehanki, a state senator and one of the sponsors of legislation that would thrust Michigan back into fierce competition with dozens of states trying to woo studios. “We’re not even in the game.”

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密西根州州參議員達伊娜.波列漢基表示,「我們沒有處在一個公平競爭環境」,「我們甚至連這場比賽都沒參與」。波列漢基是法案發起人之一,希望讓密西根州重返激烈競爭,試圖與其他數十州爭奪片廠。

Supporters say a more carefully tailored program will function better than the previous one, creating jobs and invigorating spending. But economists have long been dubious about the value of subsidies for film and television, saying they have plunged state governments into a race to the bottom where the biggest winner, by far, is Hollywood.

支持者表示,更精心設計的計劃運作會比先前的更好,創造工作機會和刺激消費。但經濟學家長久以來懷疑補助影視的價值,稱這些補助讓各州逐底競爭,而迄今爲止最大的贏家是好萊塢。

寶 鑑

A survey by The New York Times found that states have distributed more than $25 billion to film incentive programs.

紐約時報一項調查發現,各州已爲電影獎勵計劃共撥款超過250億美元。

“You could find almost an unlimited number of better uses for the same dollars,” said Michael Thom, a tax expert at the University of Southern California whose work has been critical of incentives. “Who on earth would say, ‘Keep giving the money to Hollywood; my kid’s school doesn’t need new books’?”

南加大稅務專家託姆一直對電影獎勵措施持批評態度。他說:「同樣一筆錢,你可以找到幾乎無數種更好的用途。到底誰會說,『繼續把錢給好萊塢,我孩子的學校不需要新書』?」

Even as officials have rethought public support of private industry, 38 states now allocate taxpayer dollars to film and TV production. Arizona, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri and West Virginia have all introduced programs within the past two years. Like Michigan, Wisconsin has drawn up legislation that would bring back its program.

儘管官員已重新考慮由公部門支持私人產業,仍有38個州將納稅人的錢分配給影視製作。亞利桑納州、印第安那州、肯塔基州、密蘇里州和西維吉尼亞州都在過去兩年推行相關計劃。就像密西根州,威斯康辛州也起草恢復相關計劃的立法。

文/Matt Stevens and Christopher Kuo 譯/羅方妤

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